Simply put, honey cheating is usually classified as direct, indirect (nutritional honey) and mixed. Adding sugar syrup directly after honey production is a cheating method to increase the sweetness of honey. Indirect fraud, meanwhile, with overfeeding of bees (during the pollen and nectar collection period for honey production) with Honey، chemicals And Industrial sugars It is done with the aim of getting more honey from the hives. Mixing is another method of cheating in honey, which can be explained by mixing pure and high quality honey with cheap and low quality honey.
Due to the similarity of artificial sugars and syrups used in honey manipulated with natural sugars in honey, Diagnosis of natural honey And such frauds are difficult, and scientists must discover new ways to tell the difference between pure and counterfeit honey.
1. Direct fraud
Direct honey cheating is usually done by directly adding some sucrose syrup to the honey. The source of sucrose syrup can be sugar beet, HFCS, maltose syrup or industrial sugar syrups (glucose and fructose) obtained from heat, enzymes or starch acid.
According to the study, to prepare fake honey directly, pure honey was mixed with different concentrations (7, 15 and 30%) of date syrups and sugar. On the other hand, direct honey can be cheated with synthesized sugar. Fraud was performed by mixing glucose powder with distilled water and then adding it to pure honey in laboratory design experiments. In this study, honey fraud was detected by a microfiber sensor.
2. Indirect fraud (production of nutritional honey)
Indirect honey cheating involves adding sugars to honey by feeding it to bees. Thus, poor quality honey, chemicals and industrial sugars are included in honey during a natural process that has taken place in the bee’s digestive tract. During indirect honey cheating, large amounts of sugar syrup are given to bee colonies throughout the pollen and nectar collection period.
Researchers have developed a method based on the analysis of biochemical properties to distinguish honey from indirect sucrose syrup (sucrose syrup) from pure flower honey. According to the results of this study, cheating honey with sucrose syrup does not have a significant effect on honey content, because more than 95% of the sucrose syrup fed by bees is converted to fructose and glucose. In the initial stage of bee feeding, the sucrose content was hydrolyzed in its components. However, after a period of intense feeding, bees begin to convert and store glucose into maltose and maltotriose oligosaccharides.
The amount of sucrose in pure honey owes little to the activity of invertase enzymes in pure honey. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down sucrose into its constituents and reducing the amount of sucrose in pure honey. therefore, It can be concluded that high levels of sucrose in honey samples may be due to honey cheating.
According to an experiment conducted by researchers on indirect cheating of honey, long-term feeding with sucrose syrup will have similar results to direct artificial cheating. In addition, prolonged feeding of bees with sucrose syrup reduces the nutritional properties and quality of honey as well as direct cheating.
3. Cheat by mixing
In this method, high quality honey (pure and rare) is mixed with cheaper honey that has low quality and nutritional value. This method of cheating on honey has become very common in recent years. In China and Venezuela, a well-known fraud in the honey industry involves combining expensive acacia honey with cheaper rape honey to increase marketing profits; Because the light amber color of rape honey is very similar to the yellow color of acacia honey. Acacia honey originates from the flowers of Robinia pseudacacia. This honey is usually used because of its pleasant aroma and light yellowish color, as well as because it is usually not sugary.
Because violators produce honey and Methods of cheating on honey Continuously improving, new methods of detecting the authenticity of honey will be of particular importance. These diagnostic methods should be able to distinguish between pure and counterfeit honey to market regulators and consumers in Buy natural honey Help and also promote the work of committed and honest beekeepers.